Emotional and Social Development

As infants at one month begin to better express their feelings (often with alert, widened eyes and a rounded mouth) the bond between parents and baby strengthens.By two months, your baby may begin to interact with you by smiling, called the “social smile,” along with making eye contact and moving arms. As early as two to four months, babies will grow attached to familiar caregivers.

At four to six months of age, babies become more social, and their facial expressions can now readily express emotion, such as anger and happiness.Between six to nine months, they will use those expressions to communicate both preference for caregivers and anxiety at their absence. They may cry, turn away or become upset when separated from caregivers, called separation anxiety, or act uneasy around strangers, called stranger anxiety.

Towards their first birthday, around nine to twelve months, separation anxiety and stranger anxiety may decrease, while babies increasingly demonstrate preference and affection for caregivers. Independence also increases as your baby may begin to explore more by crawling or even walking.

ref:https://www.northshore.org/pediatrics/ages-and-milestones/infant/

Social Development

BIRTH TO THREE YEARS OLD Responds to others Enjoys company of other children Can maintain involvement with another for a very short period Is unable to share without coaxing Shows very little ability to postpone gratification Imitates actions of others Begins to engage in parallel play

THREE TO FOUR YEARS OLD Becomes more aware of self Develops more altruistic feelings Becomes aware of racial/ethnic and sexual differences Is able to take direction, follow some rules Has strong feelings toward home and family Shows a growing sense of self-reliance Parallel play is common; cooperative play begins Imaginary playmates are fairly common

FIVE TO SIX YEARS OLD Expresses rigid ideas about sex roles Has best friends but for short periods of time Quarrels often but anger is short lived Is able to share and take turns Is eager to participate in school experiences Considers teacher very important Wants to be first Becomes possessive

SEVEN TO EIGHT YEARS OLD Is more competitive with peers Depends on parents for expansion of interests, activities Is influenced by peer opinions Plays with opposite sex less often Needs teacher approval Is able to share Wants to please Is more independent at work and play Forms more enduring friendships Peer groups begin to form

Emotional Development

BIRTH TO THREE YEARS OLD Cannot tolerate frustration Cries easily Is often unable to control impulses Begins to express affection Needs routines and security Begins to perceive emotions of others Expresses self, sometimes emphatically

THREE TO FOUR YEARS OLD Can tolerate some frustration Develops some self-control Appreciates surprises and novel events Begins to show sense of humor Needs overt expressions of affection Fears the dark, being abandoned, strange situations

FIVE TO SIX YEARS OLD Expresses and labels feelings Controls aggression better Expresses less concern when separated from parents Expresses sense of humor in jokes, nonsense words Learns right from wrong Develops a conscience

SEVEN TO EIGHT YEARS OLD Expresses reactions to others Is sensitive to ridicule and criticism Expresses more worries: war, loss of parents Shows more persistence Expresses more empathy; is able to see others' viewpoints

Title of work: Introduction to early childhood education; preschool through primary grades, 6th ed. (2007) Section: Extracts from Introduction to early childhood education: preschool through primary grades pp. 15--28 Author/editor of work: Brewer, Jo Ann.

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

 

BIRTH TO 4 MONTHS

  • smiles and laughs  

  • makes eye contact when held with face about 20cm from face of adult looking at them  

  • may sleep most of the time

  • alert and preoccupied with faces  

  • moves head to sound of voices

EYLF Outcome 3: Children have a strong sense of wellbeing - Children become strong in their social and emotional wellbeing. E.g. “promote children’s sense of belonging, connectedness and wellbeing.” (p.31)

4-8 MONTHS

  • reacts with arousal, attention or approach to presence of another baby or young child

  • responds to own name  

  • smiles often and shows excitement when sees preparations being made for meals or for bath

  • recognises familiar people and stretches arms to be picked up

EYLF Outcome 5: Children are effective communicators - Children interact verbally and nonverbally with others for a range of purposes. E.g. “are attuned and respond sensitively to children’s efforts to communicate.” (p.40)

8 – 12 MONTHS

  • shows definite anxiety or wariness at appearance of strangers

EYLF Outcome 3: Children have a strong sense of wellbeing - Children become strong in their social and emotional wellbeing. E.g. acknowledge children’s stage of emotional development and support them to develop resilience.

1-2 YEARS

  • begins to cooperate when playing  

  • may play alongside other toddlers, doing what they do but without seeming to interact (parallel play)

  • curious and energetic, but depends on adult presence for reassurance

EYLF Outcome 1: Children have a strong sense of identity - Children learn to interact in relation to others with care, empathy and respect. E.g. “organise learning environments in ways that promote small group interactions and play experiences” appropriate to children’s development.

2-3 YEARS

  • plays with other children

  • simple make believe play

  • may prefer same sex playmates and toys

  • unlikely to share toys without protest

EYLF Outcome 2: Children are connected with and contribute to their world - Children become aware of fairness. E.g. “Engage children in discussions about respectful and equal relations such as when a child dominates in the use of resources.” (p.28)

3-5 YEARS

  • enjoys playing with other children  

  • may have a particular friend  

  • shares, smiles and cooperates with peers  

  • jointly manipulates objects with one or two other peers  

  • develops independence and social skills they will use for learning and getting on with others at preschool and school

EYLF Outcome 1: Children have a strong sense of identity - Children learn to interact in relation to others with care, empathy and respect. E.g.” express a wide range of emotions, thoughts and views constructively.” (p.24)

EMOTIONAL

 

BIRTH TO 4 MONTHS

  • bonding  

  • cries (peaks about six to eight weeks) and levels off about 12-14 weeks  

  • cries when hungry or uncomfortable and usually stops when held

  • shows excitement as parent prepared to feed

EYLF Outcome 4: Children are confident and involved learners - Children resource their own learning through connecting with people. E.g. “provide opportunities and support for children to engage in meaningful learning relationships.” (p.37)

4-8 MONTHS

  • becoming more settled in eating and sleeping patterns

  • laughs, especially in social interactions

  • may soothe self when tired or upset by sucking thumb or dummy  

  • begins to show wariness of strangers  

  • may fret when parent leaves the room

  • happy to see faces they know

EYLF Outcome 1: Children have a strong sense of identity - Children learn to interact in relation to others with care, empathy and respect. E.g. “initiate one-to-one interactions with children, particularly babies and toddlers during daily routines.” (p.24)

8-12 MONTHS

  • actively seeks to be next to parent or principal caregiver  

  • shows signs of anxiety or stress if parent goes away  

  • offers toy to adult but does not release it y shows signs of empathy to distress of another (but often soothes self)  

  • actively explores and plays when parent present, returning now and then for assurance and interaction

EYLF Outcome 1: Children have a strong sense of identity - Children develop their emerging autonomy, inter-dependence, resilience and sense of agency. E.g. “demonstrate an increasing capacity for selfregulation.” (p.22)

1-2 YEARS

  • may show anxiety when separating from significant people in their lives

  • seeks comfort when upset or afraid

  • takes cue from parent or principal carer regarding attitude to a stranger

  • may ‘lose control’ of self when tired or frustrated  

  • assists another in distress by patting, making sympathetic noises or offering material objects

EYLF Outcome 1: Children have a strong sense of identity - Children feel safe, secure and supported. E.g. “acknowledge and respond sensitively to children’s cues and signals.”(p.21)

2-3 YEARS

  • shows strong attachment to a parent (or main family carer)

  • shows distress and protest when they leave and wants that person to do things for them

  • begins to show guilt or remorse for misdeeds

  • may be less likely to willingly share toys with peers  

  • demands adult attention

EYLF Outcome 3: Children have a strong sense of wellbeing - Children become strong in their social and emotional wellbeing. E.g. “Talk with children about their emotions and responses to events with a view to supporting their understandings of emotional regulation and self-control.” (p.31)

3-5 YEARS

  • understands when someone is hurt and comforts them  

  • attains gender stability (sure she/he is a girl/boy)

  • may show stronger preference for same-sex playmates  

  • may enforce gender-role norms with peers

  • may show bouts of aggression with peers

  • likes to give and receive affection from parents  

  • may praise themselves and be boastful

EYLF Outcome 2: Children are connected with and contribute to their world - Children respond to diversity with respect. E.g. “plan experiences and provide resources that broaden children’s perspectives and encourage appreciation of diversity.” (p.27)